Finally, disks and CD-ROMs, as well as the tapes and magnetic disks used in the mainframe systems, can also be considered control devices of an “external” memory, to be used mainly as data archives. In this way, data can be stored without cluttering up the internal memory, and can also be protected from the consequences of malfunctioning (referred to as the backing up of important data). The term hardware indicates the set of electronic circuitry and electromechanical components that constitute the structure of computers. used for sewing, or a shop or a department of a…. It might also be the case that ‘information’ is inde nable. When, at the end of the 1940s, there were warnings about the need to bring order and a scientific basis to the technology of information that was being haphazardly developed during World War II, it became necessary to establish a way to measure the “quantity of information.” It was a necessary operation, albeit in some senses debatable, since information is something essentially qualitative and, in certain cases, subjective (news represents an increase of information only for those who do not have knowledge of what it communicates). The Transdisciplinary Nature of the Concept of Information: Technology, Biology, and Physics 1. The entire notion of the information object thus is couched within the levels of abstraction concept. But optical telegraphs, used since ancient times particularly within a military perspective, also used codified forms of only two (or a very few) symbols (light or dark, smoke or no smoke, etc.). And so the city and the house would no longer be regarded as material “places,” with certain dimensions and an organization of space within which to move, but rather as a network of connections in which information, rather than the inhabitants, would be circulating. At this point, if we could set aside the fact that computers manipulate “human knowledge” —a frequently ignored, but not at all secondary, element— the information-knowledge equivalence would seem lost. (4) Cued recall and recognition tests were given on the passage contents. Located in United States. On the other hand, the image of the human being, of his or her lived experience, seems to be shaped today by the logic of the information society: Feelings, emotions, and opinions evolve around the impetus given by informative communications, thereby generating “new cultures” and “new values.” It is sufficient to recall the debate about the influence of “virtual reality” on our behavior, needs, or desires, or the change undergone in the meaning of the notion of “memory,” which has progressively moved from referring to the sphere of the life of the spirit to that of material technology. notion of information service is a core concept in computer based information services (CBIS). The variations of the current are proportional to the variations of the pressure. This elusiveness and uncontrollability remained when the system was opened up to civilian use. Coda. Rising interest in considering scientists’ activities as an extraction of a certain type of information contained in nature is witnessed by the modern debate about the intelligibility of natural laws and about the significance of the constants of nature. It allows you to note take, have a hub for information that you collect, tasks and projects, and databases and spreadsheets. Because the basic element of codification, the bit, can only take one of two values, this code is termed “binary” or “digital”: In our case the numbers “0” or “1.” At first adopted for numerical computers (once called “digital calculators”), it is now spreading into all the technical sectors of computing and information transmission in which it substitutes the codification I have termed “analogical,” or, “analog.” Thus the CD has replaced the vinyl disk, while, more and more frequently, in telephone communications our vocal inflections are codified into sequences of bits. There is also a “technical informatics,” which regards the construction of computers, and a “practical informatics,” which studies the specific ways in which many problems can be solved by computers, employing the various programming languages and other utility programs such as, for example, operating systems and databases. There exists, therefore, a double link between information and form: Information can transmit form, but it must be codified, in turn, by a form. From the preceding considerations, and from the diverse list of meanings that the concept of information evokes, some important relationships seem to emerge. Then the first two operators put the variables A and B into relation with a third variable, C. The expression “C = A Λ B” means that C is equal to 1 if A and B together are equal to 1: otherwise, it equals 0. “Taking Notion Mastery helped me view Notion as more than a tool and go beyond what I was doing with other apps in managing my life and business” By interrupting the forgetting curve, we can increase the retention of information from around 10% to more than 90%. Apel, and Karl Popper himself have been occupied with the communication of information as a phenomenon with the capacity to generate not only a new style of social life, but also a new culture. The researcher can impose a form not only by means of mathematical algorithms, but also through “models,” which are subsequently verified through experience. It was the product’s underlying relational databases. About the Author Manuel Campos Ph.D. in Philosophy by Stanford University. Searching for relevant information using information technology (IT) became a ubiquitous activity in contemporary information society. The problem has two aspects. The content of these structures (whether true or false) is identified with the kind of information they were developed to carry. If, while a person is on the telephone, some disturbance occurs (on the telephone line itself or in the neighboring environment) the quality of some words is lost and, therefore, the significance of what is heard is also partially lost; if the analog disk is scratched, the listening quality is also compromised. In television transmissions, for example, the fact that the images have a certain extension makes each point resemble, as a rule, the surrounding points. In fact, for transmitting knowledge that does not demand a practical and direct response, other verbs are preferred, such as “to explain,” “to describe,” and “to teach.” This practical emphasis of the verb “to inform” seems connected to the original significance of the word, which is related to the expression “to model according to a form.” In fact, “to inform” derives from the word “form” (Lat. Anyone trying to identify all of the material objects which compose the Internet “system” will end up greatly confused. Information in the Context of the Relation between Human Beings and Machines. In accord with the aim of the present article, let us look at some structural characteristics of informatics that can be considered reasonably constant, at least for the near future. For this purpose, an electronic circuit generates a signal (a wave of constant amplitude) appropriate to transmission, which is then modified in order to represent the original information. It has been discovered that the life of every organism, whether simple or complex, depends in an essential way on the circulation of biochemical signals (e.g., neuroelectric signals as well as, perhaps, other types) that transmit information necessary to the harmonious development of the vital processes. If an event is very probable, the fact that it occurs does not “tell us” much: It does not appreciably enrich our knowledge. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. 1. The final chapters attempt to develop a theory of meaning (or belief content) by viewing meaning as a certain kind of information-carrying role. Coda is a robust workplace collaboration tool that includes most of the advanced workspace … They identify the memory locations corresponding to the variables and break the synthetic commands up into sequences of elementary operations. Information circulates not only in the world of human beings but also in the animal world, and even in that of the vegetable. All the information, of whatever kind —the words of a verbal message, a punctuation mark, a mathematical number or operative symbol, a graphic sign or musical notation— is dealt with in the same way. Founded in 2013. Assuming a realist point of view, information thus interpreted (measurable in propositional terms) is acquired by the subject through inductive fallible processes based, in part, on the recognition of natural correlations. Perceptual knowledge is an information-dependent internal state with a content corresponding to the information producing it. Information, notion of I. Terminological Clarifications. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples From a technological point of view then, the unique quality that belongs specifically to the Internet and that characterizes it is, on the whole, immaterial. It’s everything rolled into one… In reality, many languages exist at different levels of complexity. Inasmuch as finalism is a carrier of information, and in light of the relationship between information and knowledge, such a finality could be known (or acknowledged) by man, analogously to the knowledge of which he is the subject and producer. Incongruent with expectations of USSR statements. The bits are then transformed into electrical impulses which circulate in the computer circuitry, which can modify their sequence by executing operations on them —for example, if they represent mathematical entities— by stably conserving their sequence, as magnetized points in the “memory” (see below, V). Theological Aspects: M.C. And so it continues, so that we can see the whole as a great architecture in which information and form are stratified in levels one on top of the other. Much of the automation found in industrial factories is realized with specialized microprocessors, as is the case in transport, telecommunications systems, the electronic devices used in daily life, etc., so that they appear as one of the fundamental tools of the “informatization” of society, that is, of its progressive characterization as a society of information. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. The first is the relationship of circularity existing between information and order. “C = A / B” means, instead, that C is equal to 1 if at least one of the two, A or B, is equal to 1, and it is 0 only if A and B are together equal to 0. Among the factors that contributes to this limit is the “noise” of the channel; that is, the probability that an “interference” (the same type of which we sometimes hear on the telephone, and which makes what the speaker is saying less intelligible) will transform a 1 into a 0 or a 0 into a 1. Currently teaching at the Logic Dept. The Internet originated in 1969 when the U.S. Ministry of Defense, wanting to build a telecommunications network impervious to sabotage, found the best solution to be in utilizing the world wide telecommunications system, in which messages run through itineraries nearly undetected. Likewise, if we consider the question in terms of which hardware belongs exclusively to the Internet network, the answer would be none. In harmony with Aristotle’s thought, where the formal cause and final cause are intimately connected, the existence of “formality,” that is, of information in the physical or biological universe, would refer existence towards a “finality” as well. This occurs secondly at the level of complex, codified information that provides the subject with all that is necessary to develop its vital functions, making it the final reference point for the reciprocal coordination of each vital function, in conjunction with relating to information provided by the environment. Information within Theological Reflections. ), in a variety of information science journals. There is, therefore, an original “operative” value within the word: Information—understood as the action of informing—produces a form. The goal of constructing an … At first the technical tool had been seen only as a means for the transmission of information between humans, but successively we have begun to speak of information also for communication between man and machine: The designer and the production technician communicate to an automatic machine the information relative to the fabrication of a product (for example, the paddle of a turbine). Like every good archive, it is organized like a filing cabinet in which each folder or location has its correct place or address. This discovery of the role of information in the maintenance and transmission of life has been a great conquest for biology, because it has allowed the progression from a simple description of the phenomena to an analysis of the way in which they are caused. These impulses would then travel along a conductive cable and, at the receiving end, make a machine print on a strip of paper. In other words, the universe conveys a certain amount of information. The second is that it presides over the ordered development of the vital processes. Obviously, one could not do the same thing for numerical data, as a loss of information would render it useless. Scientific language highlights another aspect, that of sharing, which exists in ordinary practice as well. of Universitat de Barcelona. The transmission and computation of information by technical operations concerns only formal aspects of information (i.e., the “syntax” of information) whereas the “semantic” aspects do not flow along the chain. In every one of these phases a different material (the vocal chords, air, the current in the microphone, the electromagnetic wave, etc.) In modern language there remains only residual links with these original meanings, but as we will progressively see they are again finding a place in our culture, principally as a result of scientific research and technological advancement. Programs of application software include executing mathematical calculations, archive management, word processing or drafting of texts, the processing of graphical images, and so on. Or they become microscopic pores on the underside of a CD (a compact disc), which an optical reader reconverts into music or computer programs. Today, this aspect of the word’s meaning has declined but it has not been completely abandoned. Nevertheless, the original philosophical significance of the word is defined with reference to the Greek morphé signifying the “appearance of an object, sufficient to characterize it externally,” and, in philosophy, referring to, “the active principle that distinguishes the essence, as dynamically contrasted with the matter”. On the same level as natural language, a programming language is characterized by a “vocabulary” and a “syntax” according to which the “words” of the vocabulary are combined to form “propositions” that have a complete meaning. According to this … To measure the quantity of information, the term that was initially proposed was “negentropy,” although it was not very successful for understandable euphonic reasons. For input, that is to say, the data entry of the programs and the data input itself, we use, for example, the keyboard, floppydisks, CD-ROMs, and optical disks. Those conceptually more simple (although unwieldy because of the number of bits they employ) consist in the subdivision of the figure into a large number of elementary smaller areas, and to each of them is attributed a “word” which is formed of many bits that serve to individualize the color, shades, and luminous intensity. In an “isolated system” (to be precise, in a set of bodies without an exchange of energy with the external environment) thermodynamic entropy measures the energy linked to the temperature, that is, the disordered motion of the atoms that compose it: The second principle of thermodynamics states that each irreversible energy transformation implies an increase of the entropy, that is, an increase of the “disorder.” Conversely, as has been seen, the concept of information is linked to the concept of order: Genetic information, for example, is carried by the order in which the “bases” follow along the double helix of the DNA. This extreme miniaturization, obtained with very refined techniques of photoincision (which will eventually reach the limits imposed by the very structure of the matter) fulfills not only the requirement of being packed in a small space, but also, and primarily, that of allowing a shorter running time. The rate by which it is possible to transmit a signal, codified into binary form, for example, is limited by the technical characteristics of the channel. Let’s now look a little more closely at the sense of the two words “form” and “information.”. The role of the “final cause” would appear if we asked ourselves, for example, what aim the technician proposes when he creates the paddle of the turbine, whether it is the production of electrical energy, the propulsion of an airplane, or something else, and what then would be the aim for which the airplane is destined. It also avoids many of the problems infecting traditional justificational accounts of knowledge (knowledge as [justified, true belief’). It is interesting to observe here, in the technical activity and in the role that the information has, that we can recognize the four Aristotelian causes. The network webs, and above all the Internet (see above VI), have enormously increased the possibility of producing and receiving culture. This interest becomes a necessity when the transmission rate is predetermined, as happens with television images. This does not happen with “digitalized” information. Departament de Lògica, Universitat de B. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. “Not,” finally, links only two variables: “B = ¬ A” means that B is equal to 0 when A is equal to 1, and 1 when A is equal to 0. Authors such as H.M. McLuhan, J. Habermas, N. Luhmann, E. Morin, K.O. Meanwhile, the progress of the stock-market is determined more and more by information industry stocks rather than by those of energy. Notion’s power wasn’t the fact that it literally did away with the need for dozens of individual tools. It is a question, therefore, as demonstrated by Shannon, of correcting the errors, provided that the rate does not exceed the capacity of the channel. Notion pricing starts at $5.00 per month, per user. Everything a computer does can be expressed through these three operations, repeated methodically an adequate number of times. Then the energy crisis and environmental pollution weakened the conviction that quality of life is correlated, positively, with the use of energy. It will be evident later on that it is always possible to codify information in a way that renders it immune to disturbances which would otherwise disrupt an analog counterpart. It is easy to see that the technical world today is dominated by the concept of information, so much so that information itself has become the characteristic element. Notion definition: A notion is an idea or belief about something. ), Cibernetica e teoria dell’informazione (Brescia: La Scuola, 1978); J.R. BENIGER, The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986); L. BRILLOUIN, La Science et la theorie de l’Information (Paris: Masson, 1959); E. CARPENTER, M. MCLUHAN (eds. Every form has the function, in some way, of the archetype of the form of the inferior level, so that the whole of reality appears organized according to a vertical order, a hierarchy of forms that, at least analogically, reflect the hierarchy of existing beings. The correspondence between thermodynamic entropy and the entropy of information is not only formal. Notion is a tool for teams and companies that want a better way to manage knowledge, projects, documents, and collaboration. In this case the “communication” does not occur between living organisms, or between human beings and the technology invented by them and in which they have inserted an automatic language, but rather between the non-living world and us. On the other hand, clearly the intention is to transmit information at the greatest possible rate, that is, to transmit information in a way that utilizes the technical equipment to the best advantage. The presence of information and of the exchange of information necessary to the functional processes of living organisms seems to be in strict connection with that unique property of life which concerns its tendency to conserve and reproduce itself. The functioning of the CPU, and therefore of the whole computer, is “synchronized.” It is governed by a clock (usually a quartz oscillator), which stabilizes the rate of the operations and is “sequential,” that is, the operations are executed, in principle, one at a time. These commands can be of the type, “Read the data from the memory, continue with operations, write the results in the memory, and continue to the following command.” Identifying the data to be worked on is important, and this is the scope of the memory. There is another link between information and form: To be transmitted, the information must, in fact, be “formulated” (we are therefore led to a new concept, that of “formulation”), that is, fixed according to a “code” that is shared between the transmitter and the receiver. Attitude and knowledge effects in prose processing. Sometimes the translator (which is then referred to as the “interpreter”) carries out this operation, command by command, during the running of the program, whereas at other times (playing the role of the “compiler”) it produces a new program, which it will then run. Information in the World of Living Organisms: Genetic Information. At that time, programming was quite a tedious process and the likelihood for error was very high. It has already been pointed out that today it is this meaning that is, unquestionably, more common. WATKIN, A Philosophy of Form (London: Sheed and Ward, 1950); N. WIENER, Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (New York: M.I.T. Life is the center of an intrinsic finality within nature, in which information plays a decisive role, regulating the processes of coordination and orientation. At every node, computer terminals (there were around 410 million in the whole world at the end of the year 2000) can be connected through “switching” lines, that is, normal telephone lines (this is the case for domestic use), or “dedicated lines,” traditional telephone lines that do not pass through the switching devices of the central lines. Information is seen as an objective commodity defined by the dependency relations between distinct events. There is also, at least potentially a double material “formation,” first (at least potentially) in sounds and then in signs on the page. There exist, then, the ROM memories (read only memory) and their derivatives PROM, EPROM, and EEPROM which allow for the limited possibility of writing. The memory units conserve the data and programs and make them available to the unit of computation. The reason for this is simple, and is well exemplified by the CD, which is much smaller than the vinyl disk, yet nevertheless permits a much higher quality of reproduction. All rights reserved. One can speak of history beginning with the time when the diffusion of information was entrusted to the spoken or written word, to the painted, sculpted, or etched picture, and to the tools of material culture, etc. Information is given by the order of the sequence of the bits with values of “0” and “1.” A greater amount of information is therefore represented by a greater level of order. Reductionist perspectives and the notion of information NicolePerreta,,GiuseppeLongoa,b aCentre Cavaillès, République des Savoirs, CNRS USR3608, Collège de France et École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France bDepartment of Integrative Physiology and Pathobiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA USA Abstract Reductionism is the dominant stance of biology. But only the extremes are perceptible and significant for those who transmit and receive them: In the middle there is a “gray zone” in which the information is hidden in a form inaccessible to perception. Scientists tend to see the living organism as a gigantic chemical laboratory on one hand and, on the other hand, as a very complicated network of transmissions of information necessary for its functioning. But often the data depends on each other (we can say that they are inter-connected). This occurs first of all at the level of a single, living individual, whose specificity within the environment and the biological, chemical, and physical elements makes existence possible, is the depository of a particular “form” that gives unity and meaning to the living subject. The operating system is executed as the computer is switched on and then remains available to render the commands that come from the application programs “intelligible.”. 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